Types of Teleological Ethical Theories. Perhaps among the most practicable theories that fit perfectly in the case of death tragedy at Massey Energy Company is the care theory that presents the realm intentions of ethical business practices. Examples of rights-based ethics at work include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Geneva Conventions and the United States' Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights and Constitution. © Copyright ‘2020’ by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal - Website designed by Luca Morelli. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Justice and fair practice should entail a relationship between employees and employers that include permissibility of important secrets in business-related negotiations (Robertson & Walter, 2007). The storyline of the explosion indicated that the rescue team appeared at the scene some hours after the explosion, meaning that the company had no specialists to counter an explosion. Introduction. Ciulla (2004) assumes that since people can barely foresee the repercussions of their actions, moral judgment should entail proper application of moral principles and not upon the contingency of outcomes. This may include: Theory of Ethics It's difficult to say exactly what ethics is, but we can say that it involves a standard of what is right and wrong based on what people ought to do. What’s your deadline? Contemporary theorists, who consider caring theory as the most appropriate approach in business ethics, have noticed that since justice, rights, and utility all come from laws and regulations, which should be impartial or impersonal, they undermine the self-dependency of ethical behavior, which should be solely innate (Noda, 2011). The principles of justice ethical approach in business organizations have evolved since the Aristotle era and they assume that individuals, including workers, should receive equal treatment unless they partially differ in significantly uncontrollable manner that seem imperative to the underway situation (Arnold et al., 2010). Lack of these essential safety precautions underscores a violation of safety requirements and the 2011 was a similar breach to safety principles as they undermined the employee’s justice. According to Locke, every person has a set of fundamental rights that they are entitled to … Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 559-581. Although the risk was unforeseen, there was even no enough workplace material including oxygen tanks that are essential workplace safety tools. Any action against employees’ expectations and desires conducted by organizations is injustice. Justice as an ethical approach in the leadership and business practices is where individuals receive equal treatment in the society regardless of their creed, racial background, professional rank, or even their social classes. With regard to the case of Massey and its Upper Big Branch, there might not be considerable connection that directly explains this relationship. Powers in rights are “the ability within asset of rules to alter then normative situation of one self or another” (Arnold et al., 2010, p.572). which is not directly addressed by rights ethics). The session ended where it started – with a reflection on business ethics. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Despite advice, there were cracks and faults running through the mine walls that predisposed workers to workplace risks. Many people engaged in business activity, including accountants andlawyers, are professionals. Rights ethics is an answer to the meta-ethical question of what normative ethics is concerned with (Meta-ethics also includes a group of questions about how ethics comes to be known, true, etc. “In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society, it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions” (Gardiner, 2003, p. 297). The workshop ended with a presentation by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal and Zhiwei Hu on their year-long project about CSR guidance and company reporting in China. A critical reflection on utilitarianism as the basis for psychiatric ethics. "Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories." Deontological theories. Though the view that business has human rights responsibilities has attracted a great deal of positive attention, this view continues to face many reservations and unresolved questions. Doug Specht – a chartered cartographer – examined the history of the cartographic ‘gaze’ and how this became embedded in new technologies; he then explored the limitations this led to, and offered ways of moving forward, through what he called sousveillance projects – aimed to break away from ‘the cartographic gaze’ to create new representations of the world that avoid the process of ‘re-othering’ and further subjugation. However, most critics on the utilitarian moral theory of the Bentham version of utilitarianism rest upon the notion that it is difficult to determine satisfaction of choice. Virtuous leadership is honesty and ethically right as leaders possessing these traits have the ability to protect the welfare of employees and the interests of the company in a balanced manner. Seven of their fellow miners died instantly and two of them managed to come out alive, but badly injured. Learn how your comment data is processed. 3. As Shoemaker (1999) postulates, growth in the legal frameworks governing societies, communities, and even nations have resulted in considerable influences on how corporate business view legal issues. The death incidence occurred at the Upper branch of the coalmine around Mont coal in the West Virginia district. "Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories." Shoemaker, D. (1999). The ethics of care stipulate that individuals should be capable of, if necessary, meeting the demands of others and themselves in a mutual rapport. RIGHTS THEORY. According to the utilitarianism concept, human beings should enjoy uninterrupted peace, pleasure if possible, and that maximization of happiness goes in hand with the actions of intentions. Rights-based ethics is a concept that because one is a human being that person is entitled to certain rights. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. In the conclusion of their investigations, the Federal Department of Justice Settlement and the MSHA unveiled a report that indicated that although enforceable, the disaster was just a simple avertable coal dust explosion. Similar to the ethics of care in business professional practices, virtue business ethics is a broad business theory that focuses on the character of the moral behavior of individuals rather than the rightness of the intended actions. On regulation, the GBI released a briefing with Clifford Chance earlier this year. Though the social contract theory is not considered an actual "contract," it holds business ventures to very high standards by "imposing significant social responsibilities," writes Hasnas in his 1998 article, "The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed." John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. This aspect contrasted the notion of ethical business practices that percepts that organizations should undertake their businesses morally by ensuring that they preserve justice, employee freedom, and safeguard human dignity (Ciulla, 2004). Cases of ethical lapses are still on the rise, and thus developing an understanding of the issues in the context of decent business practices is becoming essential. Justice and fair practice include a relationship between employees and employers, and employees and employees as well, something that is undisputable in the justice theory. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine. Distributive justice entails equal distribution of benefits and burdens among the involved society or organizational members. 2019. The mining company used certain cars to ferry miners in and out of the mine entrance during the shift reshuffling. From the normative perspective, care ethics maintain that mutual relationship exists when there is wellbeing of caregivers and the care receivers within the networks of social relationships (Noda, 2011). Rights are generally defined as justified claims for the protection of general interests. Ethical behaviour of people doing business is very important in our society. It was the duty of care for the employer of Massey to protect and care for the miners drilling oil. The company proved less considerate towards its workers and this aspect constitutes unethical business practices guided by self-interest as opposed to the mutual dependence between the company and workers engaged in the mines. Natural Rights Theory, the view that morality comes from people’s basic rights, is more like that. According to Robertson and Walter (2007), the utilitarian moral theory can remain assessable through “clarity, coherence, comprehensiveness, simplicity, explanatory power, justificatory power, output power, and practicality” (p.2). As the need for mutual understanding between workers and companies intensifies, organizational discourse is currently revolving around ethical business principles that are paramount for organizational success in the modern day businesses. Business Jargons Business Ethical Theories Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights… Any human actions in bad intentions are less virtuous and unethical. Explosive gas methane and carbon monoxide elongated the rescue time. Morals in individuals play a significant role and individuals should independently use their ethical behaviors in attaining their purpose without harming others (Shoemaker, 1999). Employees should enjoy favorable working conditions and companies should never subject employees to any form of humiliation at the expense of corporate gain (Arnold et al., 2010). Utilitarianism and personal identity. Rights theories maintain that there are things we cannot do against individuals because they are holders of moral rights. Jose Pavon AC1403380 Business Ethics C06.V.9.1 Assignment 4 C061 3/3/15 A right is encouraged by principles of justice and constitutes the legal and institutional order regulating human behavior in society. Teleological Theories: The term ‘teleological’ is … The right of individuals or organizations to express opinions or share information freely in written medium. IvyPanda. Philosophers argue that ethical business practices may even not require theories of justice, utility, or even rights, but ethical practices may only require ethical leadership where passion is intrinsic (Ciulla, 2004). (2019) 'Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories'. 6 February. However, it is important to consider the logical reasoning that resulted in the formation of the care theory that most probably outdoes all other business ethics theories. Ethical theories depend on what is right and wrong and the end result of the action. More generally, we are reviewing five theories that provide the ethical building blocks you can use in your classroom to debrief any ethical dilemma. The basis of the law is social relations which determine its content and character. 302 -328). Please click here to access the programme, briefing with Clifford Chance earlier this year, Business Ethics and Human Rights, from Theory to Practice, A feast of a debate on business and human rights. The principle of rights theory is the idea that in order for a society to be successful government must approach the making and enforcement of laws with the right intentions in respect to the end goals of the society that it governs. The right to express ideas or opinions with freedom as an individual. The study of ethics focuses on human relationships and what is considered morally correct in human... Case of death at the Massey Energy Company. The theory of care postulates that individuals should relate within the ethics of care where moral significant and individual ethical behavior are fundamental elements of building dependencies and relationships in human life (Noda, 2011). Furthermore, evolving issues of presence of adaptive preferences that sometime deem uncontrollable as people accept such preferences due to low expectations presents a significant challenge to establish the basis of utilitarianism (Robertson & Walter, 2007). It is the only moral … In this sense, human beings have been described as having rights to property, "to life, liberty, and the pursuit happiness" ( United States Declaration of Independence, 1776), as "free and equal in rights" ( Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789), and as having rights "to share in scientific advancement and … Dr Opi Outhwaite opened the proceedings with a paper on government procurement, and the gap between hard law and soft law on human rights. 1. Rights ethics holds that normative ethics is concerned with rights. This perception brings understanding of the development of the care theory and its principles, which have been paramount in the context of business ethics and its real meaning to the welfare of employees and success of organizations. The foremost portion of business ethics understands the theory of rights as one of the core principles in the five-item ethical positions that deem essential in the understanding of moral business practices (Gardiner, 2003). Massey Company had not only violated the ethical business standards and the federal government legal stipulations of the MSHA, but the constant problems described entail some significant breach of justice in organizations. The rescue teams did little to contain the situation as it forced them to enter the mine in turns. The rights ethical approach assumes that it is the moral and professional responsibility of the management and its company to consider the safety of workers and provide them with appropriate protection against any form of physical or psychological harm. Arnold et al. You’re used to rights-talk from legal discussions. 1. Utilitarianism empathizes that proper cause of action is the one responsible for maximizing utility or efficiency and philosophers like GE Moore insisted that no one could formulate a true conception of good. The project is a good example of multi-stakeholder collaboration, and Dr Voiculescu explained the role of government, foreign and local companies, the World Bank, domestic finance and labour in the supply chains in Uzbekistan, and the resulting intricacies in on-going efforts to reduce child labour in the country. This was followed by a good look at the EU Directive on whistleblower protection – based on in-depth document analysis – and how it relates to freedom, security and autonomy. Although no ethical framework is perfect or fits a particular era completely, Rawls’s justice theory has distinct advantages when applied to business in the twenty-first century. The afternoon session focused on the role of governments in supporting human rights. Massey and its Upper Big Branch consistently remained insensitive to environmental precautions and mismanaged the coal slurry that contained toxic impurities. Reasoning according to Aristotle is the guide towards practicing moral virtues and ethical behavior in individuals various life occupations (Robertson & Walter, 2007). Last time, we talked about the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision-making. Business owners and managers can use an ethics theory they deem most appropriate for use in their operations. Business ethics theories include the moral principles or codes a company implements to ensure that all individuals working in the company act with acceptable behavior. Lord Hastings set the scene with a thought-provoking talk on WHAT are we talking about, when we talk about human rights, in this era of digitisation, when most consequential decision are (soon to be) made by computers? This study analyzes these theories in the context of the case of deaths at the Massey Energy Company. Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. This essay on Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories was written and submitted by your fellow student. Ethics determines the difference between right and wrong. Although little equipped with oxygen tanks and masks, the tanks possessed little oxygen that limited the required air supply. professional specifically for you? In the last several decades a diverse movement has emerged that seeks to extend the accountability for human rights beyond governments and states, to businesses. 2.1 The Means Justify the Ends versus the Ends Justify the Means Management teams should be virtuous so that their actions and regulations that they develop do not contradict the real meaning of ethical leadership. On this day, nine of the shift miners had just managed to come out of the cars and while walking towards the exit end of the mine, they heard a loud blast of air blow past them. Of course, every dilemma can be dissected using more than one approach, and thus, the end result or decision may […] Rights theory holds that any individual or business purposes should not subject other humans to any form of mistreatment. Stuart Mill further comprehended the utilitarian idea by explaining that cultural, intellectual, and even spiritual pleasures are more valuable than the physical pleasures. Required fields are marked *. Dr Outhwaite highlighted the leverage that states have, to influence their suppliers (and their human rights agenda), given their significant purchasing power; and the long-established precedent that exists for the use of government procurement as a tool to promote social policies. Our moral belief about life changes over time. Carefulness in business practice is one of the business principles considered essential in the moral philosophy. Human approach towards anticipation for maximizing of pleasure and elimination of suffering and pain brings about the fundamentals established in the realm of moral philosophies that date back to a distant past (Robertson & Walter, 2007). Becoming more and more workable in terms of economist-driven formulations, further works on utilitarian as a moral philosophy led to the formation of two forms of intuitive ideas of maximizing good into ‘Act’ and ‘Rule’ utilitarianism. Ethical leadership is part of ethical business practices and it entails instilled democracy. In organizations, this ethical approach holds that justice may be in the form of distributive justice, retributive justice, or even compensatory justice all in which social justice and equal dignity are core subjects. The tangled debris made it even worse for the rescue teams’ progress as it had littered the entire excavation floor. Organizations and their leadership should thus uphold the required business ethical principles that consider human rights as part of their core ideology of the business foundations.